Multiple Coincident Eruptive Seismic Tremor Sources During the 2014-2015 Eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland

Eibl, Eva P. S. and Bean, Christopher J. and Jónsdóttir, Ingibjoerg and Höskuldsson, Armann and Thordarson, Thorvaldur and Coppola, Diego and Witt, Tanja and Walter, Thomas (2017) Multiple Coincident Eruptive Seismic Tremor Sources During the 2014-2015 Eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122.

Share Twitter Facebook Email

[img] Text

Download (8MB)
Official URL:


We analyze eruptive tremor during one of the largest effusive eruptions in historical times in Iceland (2014/15 Holuhraun eruption). Seismic array recordings are compared with effusion rates deduced from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) recordings and ground video monitoring data and lead to the identification of three coexisting eruptive tremor sources. This contrasts other tremor studies that generally link eruptive tremor to only one source usually associated with the vent. The three sources are (i) a source that is stable in back azimuth and shows bursts with ramp-like decrease in amplitude at the beginning of the eruption. We link it to a process below the open vents where the bursts correlate with the opening of new vents and temporary increases in the lava fountaining height. (ii) a source moving by a few degrees per month while the tremor amplitude suddenly increases and decreases. Back azimuth and slowness correlate with the growing margins of the lava flow field whilst contact with a river led to fast increases of the tremor amplitude. (iii) a source moving by up to 25 degrees southwards in 4 days that cannot be related to any observed surface activity and might be linked to intrusions. We therefore suggest that eruptive tremor amplitudes/ energies are used with caution when estimating eruptive volumes, effusion rates or the eruption explosivity as multiple sources can coexist during the eruption phase. Our results suggest that arrays can monitor both the growth of a lava flow field and the activity in the vents.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: tremor, effusive eruption, array, natural hazard, monitoring
Divisions: School of Cosmics Physics
School of Cosmics Physics > Geophysics
Date Deposited: 05 Apr 2018 12:00
Last Modified: 05 Apr 2018 12:00

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year